In this chapter, we examined the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of American donors, described key motives for giving, explained the individual giving model and other alternative models of giving, and applied these models to the design of fundraising communications.
Indiana University Center on Philanthropy Panel Study (COPPS)
The Center on Philanthropy at Indiana University conducts the Center on Philanthropy Panel Study (COPPS) in conjunction with the University of Michigan Institute for Social Research’s Panel Study of Income Dynamics. This study aims to follow the same families philanthropic behaviors throughout their lives. The Panel Study of Income Dynamics has surveyed the same 8,000 households since 1968. The philanthropy component was conducted in 2001, 2003, 2005 and 2007. The Center aims to continue this study every two years pending funding. The COPPS dataset is likely to become the most widely used and most reputable dataset for academics and practitioners alike in the coming year. As mentioned in our introductory chapter, this study, to our knowledge, is the only study of its kind in the world, tracking the giving behavior of different generations of Americans. The data, combined with all other available survey information from the same households, has been made available through the
Independent Sector Giving and Volunteering in the United States Survey
Independent Sector’s Giving and Volunteering series is one of its Signature Series that measures the giving and volunteering habits of Americans. It is based on national surveys of thousands of adults. This survey was conducted in 1988, 1992, 1994, 1996, 1999 and 2001. These six waves of surveys did not measure the same individuals. Therefore, it is not a panel or longitudinal dataset in the same way as COPPS. Unfortunately, the Giving and Volunteering survey was discontinued after Independent Sector shut down its operation in research. The complete
Self Interest Versus Altruism
First, external stimuli need to be attended to and interpreted. The following resource will provide you with examples of advertisements designed to attract sufficient attention and facilitate favorable interpretations.
Gift Giving Literature Review
Breeze B (2010) How Donors Choose Charities, University of Kent.
Adler, A.B., Wright, B.A. and Ulicny, G.R. (1991), ‘Fundraising Portrayals Of People With Disabilities: Donations and Attitudes’, Rehabilitation Psychology, 36(4): 231-240.
Ajzen, I. (1991). ‘The theory of planned behavior’, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. Special Issue: Theories of cognitive self-regulation. Vol. 50, No. 2, 179-211.
Anderson, J. R., Bothell, D., Byrne, M. D., Lebiere, C., Qin, Y., and Douglass, S. (2004) ‘An Integrated Theory of the Mind’, Psychological Review, Vol. 111, No. 4, 1036-60.
Andreoni J (2001), ‘The Economics of Philanthropy’, in Smelser N.J. and Baltes P.B. (eds) International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioural Sciences, London, Elsevier.
Auten, G. E., Clotfelter, C.T., and Schmalbeck, R. L. (2000). ‘Taxes and Philanthropy Among the Wealthy’, in J. Slemrod (Ed.) Does Atlas Shrug? The Economic Consequences of Taxing the Rich (pp. 392-424). Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press.
Bagozzi, R. P. (1996) ‘The Role of Aroudal in the Creation and Control of the Halo Effect in Attitude Models’, Psychology & Marketing, Vol. 13, No. 3, 235-64.
Batson, D.C. (1990), ‘How Social An Animal? The Human Capacity For Caring’, American Psychologist, 45: 336-346.
Batson, D. C., Lishner, D. A., Carpenter, A., Dulin, L., Harjusola-Webb, S., Stocks, E. L., Gale, S., Hassan, O., and Sampat, B. (2003) ‘“…As You Would Have Them Do Unto You”: Does Imagining Yourself in the Other’s Place Stimulate Moral Action?’, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Vol. 29, No. 9, 1190-1201.
Batson, D. C., Turk, C. L., Shaw, L. L., and Klein, T. R. (1995) ‘Information Function of Empathic Emotion: Learning That We Value the Other’s Welfare’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 68, No. 2, 300-13.
Beatty S.E., Kahle, L.R., Homer, P.M. and Misra S (1985) ‘Alternative Measurement Approaches To Consumer Values. The List of Values and the Rokeach Value Survey’, Psychology and Marketing, 3, 181-200.
Bendapudi N and Singh S.N. (1996) ‘Enhancing Helping Behavior: An Integrative Framework for Promotion Planning’, Journal of Marketing, 60(3): 33-54.
Bennett, R. (2002) ‘Factors Underlying the Inclination to Donate to Particular Types of Charity’, International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, Vol. 8, No. 1, 12-29.
Blair, S., and Wicklund, R. A. (1984) ‘The Contagion of Self-Focus within a Dyad’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 46, No. 1, 163-68.
Brolley, D.Y.and Anderson, S.C. (1986), ‘Advertising and Attitudes’, Rehabilitation Digest, 17: 15-17.
Brooks, A. C (2007) ‘Does Giving Make Us Prosperous?’, Journal of Economics and Finance, Vol. 31, No. 3, 403-12.
Brown, S.P., and Stayman, D. M. (1992) ‘Antecedents and Consequences of Attitude toward the Ad: A Meta-Analysis’, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 19, 34-51.
Clary, E.G. and Snyder, M. (1991), ‘A Functional Analysis Of Altruism and Prosocial Behaviour: The Case Of Volunteerism’, In Review Of Personality and Social Psychology, 12, London, Sage, 119-148.
Darke, P. R., and Ritchie, R. J. B. (2007) ‘The Defensive Consumer: Advertising Deception, Defensive Processing, and Distrust’, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 44, No. 1, 114-27.
Davis, F. D., Bagozzi, R. P., and Warshaw, P. R. (1992) ‘Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation to use Computers in the Workplace’, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Vol. 22, 1111-32.
Davis, M.H., Hull, J.G., Young, R.D. and Warren, G.G. (1987) ‘Emotional Reactions to Dramatic Film Stimuli: The Influence of Cognitive and Emotional Empathy,’ Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52(1): 126-33.
Eayrs, C.B.and Ellis, N. (1990), ‘Charity Advertising. For or Against People With A Mental Handicap?’, British Journal Of Social Psychology, 29(4): 349-360.
Elliot, T.R.and Byrd, E.K. (1982), ‘Media and Disability’, Rehabilitation Literature, 43(11-12): 348-355.
Feinman, S. (1978), ‘When Does Sex Affect Altruistic Behaviour?’, Psychological Reports, 43: 12-18.
Feldman, D. and Feldman, B. (1985), ‘The Effect Of A Telethon On Attitudes Toward Disabled People and Financial Contributions’ Journal Of Rehabilitation, 51: 42-45.
Fultz, J.C., Batson, D., Fortenbach, V.A., McCarthy, P., and Varney, L.L. (1986), ‘Social Evaluation and the Empathy Altruism Hypothesis’, Journal Of Personality and Social Psychology, 50: 761-769.
Gruder, C.L.and Cook, T.D. (1971), ‘Sex Dependency and Helping’, Journal Of Personality and Social Psychology, 19: 290-294.
Harris, R.M.and Harris, A.C. (1977), ‘Devaluation Of The Disabled In Fund Raising’, Rehabilitation Psychology, 24: 69-78.
James III, R. N. and Sharpe, D.L. (2007) ‘The Nature and Causes of the U-Shaped Charitable Giving Profile’, Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Vol. 36, 218-38.
Krebs, D. and Whitten, P.(1972), ‘Guilt Edged Giving – The Same Of It All’, Psychology Today, January, 42.
Latane, B. and Nida, S. (1981), ‘Ten Years Of Research on Group Size and Helping’, Psychological Bulletin, 89(2): 308-324.
Lee, S. (1998), ‘What Goes In Must’, Third Sector, 25th June, 14-15.
Levy, S. R., Freitas, A. L. and Salovey, P. (2002) ‘Construing Action Abstractly and Blurring Social Distinctions: Implications for Perceiving Homogeneity Among, but also Empathizing With and Helping Others’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 83, No. 5, 1224-38.
Likert, R. (1932) ‘A Technique for the Measurement of Attitudes’, Archives of Psychology, Vol. 140, 5-53.
Miller. D.T. (1977), ‘Altruism and Threat to a Belief in a Just World’ Journal Of Experimental Psychology, 13: 113-124.
Mort, G. S., and Rose, T. (2004) ‘The Effect of Product Type on Value Linkages in the Means-End Chain: Implications for Theory and Method’, Journal of Consumer Behavior, Vol. 3, No. 3, 221-34.
Nan, X. (2009) ‘The Influence of Source Credibility on Attitude Certainty: Exploring the Moderating Effects of Timing of Source Identification and Individual Need for Cognition’, Psychology & Marketing, Special Issue: The Influence of Source Credibility on Attitude Certainty, Vol. 26, No.4, 321-32.
Pieper, E. (1975), ‘What Price Charity?’ Exceptional Parent, 5(1): 35-40.
Piliavin, I.M., Piliavin, J.A. and Rodin, J.(1975), ‘Costs of Diffusion and the Stigmatised Victim’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32: 429-438.
Roseman, I.J. (1991) ‘Appraisal Determinants of Discrete Emotions’, Cognition and Emotion, Vol. 5, 161-200.
Sargeant A, Ford J and West D.C. (2000) ‘Widening The Appeal of Charity’, International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 5(4): 318-332.
Sargeant A, West D.C. and Ford J.B. (2001), ‘The Role of Perceptions in Predicting Donor Value, Journal of Marketing Management, 17: 407-428.
Sargeant, A., and Woodliffe, L. (2008) ‘Individual Giving Behavior: A Multidisciplinary Review’, In Sargeant, A. and Wymer, W. (Eds.) The Routledge Companion to Nonprofit Marketing, London, UK, Routledge.
Schervish, P. G., and Havens, J.J. (2001) ‘Wealth and the Commonwealth: New Findings on Wherewithal and Philanthropy’, Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Vol. 30, No. 1, 5-25.
Schwartz, B. (1967), ‘The Social Psychology Of The Gift’, The American Journal Of Sociology, 73(1): 1-11.
Schwartz, S. (1977), ‘Normative Influences On Altruism’, in Berkowitz, L. (Ed), Advances In Experimental Social Psychology, 10, New York, Academic Press, 221-279.
Schwartz, C., Meisenhelder, J.B., Ma, Y., and Reed. G. (2003) ‘Altruistic Social Interest Behaviors Are Associated With Better Mental Health’, Psychosomatic Medicine, Vol. 65, 778-85.
Shanahan, K.J., and Hopkins, C.D. (2007) ‘Truths, Half-Truths, and Deception’, Journal of Advertising, Vol 36, No. 2, 33-83.
Shelton, M. L. and Rogers, R.W. (1981), ‘Fear Arousing and Empathy Arousing Appeals To Help: The Pathos Of Persuasion’, Journal Of Applied Psychology, 11(4): 366-378.
Shurka, E., Siller, J. and Dvonch, P. (1982), ‘Coping Behaviour and Personal Responsibility as Factors in the Perception of Disabled Persons by the Non Disabled’, Rehabilitation Psychology, 27: 225-233.
Simmons R.G. (1991) Presidential Address on Altruism and Sociology, The Sociological Quarterly, 32: 1-22.
Small, D. A., Loewenstein, G. and Slovic, P.(2007) ‘Sympathy and Callousness: The Impact of Deliberative Thought on Donations to Identifiable and Statistical Victims’, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Vol. 102, No. 2, 143-53.
Stayman, D. M., and Aaker D. A. (1988) ‘Are All the Effects of Ad-Induced Feelings Mediated by Aad?’, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 15, 368-73.
Thaler, R. H. (1999) ‘Mental Accounting Matters’, Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, Vol. 12, 183-206.
Väänänen, A., Buunk, B.P., Kivimäki, M., Pentti, J., and Vahtera, J. (2005) ‘When It Is Better to Give Than to Receive: Long-Term Health Effects of Perceived Reciprocity in Support Exchange’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 89, No. 2, 176-93.
Vesterlund, L.(2006) ‘Why do people give?’, In Powell, W. W. and Steinberg, R. (Eds.) The Nonprofit Sector, A Research Handbook. New Haven, CT, Yale University Press.
Wagner, C. and Wheeler, L. (1969), ‘Model Need and Cost Effects in Helping Behaviour’, Journal Of Personality and Social Psychology, 12: 111-116.
Wilhelm, M. O. (2007) ‘The Quality and Comparability of Survey Data on Charitable Giving’, Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Vol. 36, No. 10, 1-20.
Wood, W., and Neal, D. T. (2007) ‘A New Look at Habits and the Habit-Goal Interface’, Psychological Review, Vol. 114, No. 4, 843-63.
Yen, S. T. (2002) ‘An Econometric Analysis of Household Donations in the USA’, Applied Economics Letters, Vol. 9, 837-41.